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This article builds on this comparison and applies it to yet another EU directive which follows even more closely the idea to interfere with the binding nature of contractual terms. Recent CJEU case law pertaining to the sanction contained in Article 6(1) of Directive 93/13/EEC, its incorporation into national laws, and the perspectives of various legal doctrines, particularly in Polish law, spur us to investigate the nature of the sanction for unfair contract terms and its relevance for the contemporary discussion on the typology of nullity.
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The Cold War as it lies in common knowledge lasted from 1946 to 1991. Now there is a new one but we cannot pinpoint the exact start of it. Experts believe it can be dated roughly to the beginning of 2018, the time by which the preceding processes had come together in a total, complex system. The US National Security Strategy, published at the end of 2017, already provided a systematic summary of the main global challenger, China, and this is reinforced by the Biden Administration’s Interim Strategy Guidance, published on 3 March 2021. What can be expected of China in 2023? How does China’s new Cold War continue?
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This remarkable country, called Iran, is striving for a position in the multipolar world order. It is a regional power with its ancient historical identity, its natural resources, which mean a great interest for great powers. Iranian women in the transformative times are trying to find their new life and freedom. If women, mothers do not find their place in a country, it can lead to complete disorder and chaos.
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Globalisation is fundamentally changing the way society and the economy work. The rise of digitalisation is one of the possible reasons of social, economic, and even cultural transformation. We are at the interface between physical reality and the digital world. Every aspect of life is beginning to become more digitalized, which has many advantages but also has challenges and risks.
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On December 4, French President Emmanuel Macron stated that “the new security architecture should give guarantees to Russia, if Moscow returns to the negotiating table to end the war in Ukraine”. It is obvious that after the war in Ukraine is over, Europe will exist in a completely different reality with new parameters on its security architecture. The question here is as follows: what place will Georgia occupy, if at all, in the new European security architecture?