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Unfair Contract Terms and Consumers: Historical and Comparative Parallels of Asymmetrical Sanctions

by Grzegorz Blicharz

 65 total views

This article builds on this comparison and applies it to yet another EU directive which follows even more closely the idea to interfere with the binding nature of contractual terms. Recent CJEU case law pertaining to the sanction contained in Article 6(1) of Directive 93/13/EEC, its incorporation into national laws, and the perspectives of various legal doctrines, particularly in Polish law, spur us to investigate the nature of the sanction for unfair contract terms and its relevance for the contemporary discussion on the typology of nullity.

China in the New Cold War – Can the West Win Again?

by István Vass

 136 total views

The Cold War as it lies in common knowledge lasted from 1946 to 1991. Now there is a new one but we cannot pinpoint the exact start of it. Experts believe it can be dated roughly to the beginning of 2018, the time by which the preceding processes had come together in a total, complex system. The US National Security Strategy, published at the end of 2017, already provided a systematic summary of the main global challenger, China, and this is reinforced by the Biden Administration’s Interim Strategy Guidance, published on 3 March 2021. What can be expected of China in 2023? How does China’s new Cold War continue?



Our mission is to bridge the gap between Hungarian and European experts and eliminate linguistic obstacles by sharing our knowledge, skills, and extensive network.


Our professional efforts are based on two pillars:

  • create an independent, nonpartisan Hungarian foreign policy forum that will help Hungarian researchers to gain a foothold on the international ground of security and defense policy.
  • foster a constructive dialogue and exchange of ideas, respectively partnership with other foreign policy organizations abroad.

Our scientific activities include book and study reviews, as well as the release of excerpts in English language.  We are determined to nurture talent.


The Dialogue for Regional Security and Science is an international networking project founded and maintained by the Külügyi Műhely Alapítvány. We operate in accordance with the guidelines, laid down by the founder. Külügyi Műhely Alapítvány (hereinafter: the Foundation) was established in Budapest in 2018. Since then, it has emerged as a leading actor in the Hungarian academic life.


The Foundation's scientific online journal is issued twice a year. The publication is intended to provide in-depth analysis of international events and analysis of Hungary's external relations. Its aim is to provide academics, researchers, professionals, along with university students (including postgraduate and doctoral students) a forum to present and publish their scientific findings. For further information, visit our website.




Rita Mészáros

Director general

István Vass

Managing director


Lilla Nóra Kiss



Aida Bektasheva


Monika Palotai_Editor

Mónika Palotai



Zsolt Bederna


Dr. jur. Balázs SZABÓ Ph.D.



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